The Republic of India is a country in South Asia which comprises the majority of the Indian subcontinent. India has a coastline which stretches over seven thousand kilometres, and shares its borders with Pakistan to the west, the People’s Republic of China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, and Bangladesh and Myanmar on the east. On the Indian Ocean, it is adjacent to the island nations of the Maldives on the southwest, Sri Lanka on the south, and Indonesia on the southeast. India borders with Afghanistan to the northwest.
India is the fourth largest economy in the world in terms of purchasing power parity. It is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of over one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. It is home to some of the most ancient civilisations, and a centre of important historic trade routes. Four major world religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism have originated from India. Formerly a major part of the British Empire as the British Raj before gaining independence in 1947, during the past twenty years the country has grown significantly, especially in its economic and military spheres, regionally as well as globally.
India’s entire north and northeast states are made up of the Himalayan Range. The rest of northern, central and eastern India consists of the fertile Indo-Gangetic plain. Towards western India, bordering southeast Pakistan, lies the Thar Desert. The southern Indian peninsula is almost entirely composed of the Deccan plateau. The plateau is flanked by two hilly coastal ranges, the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats. India is home to several major rivers such as the Ganga (Ganges), the Brahmaputra, the Yamuna, the Godavari, and the Krishna. The rivers are responsible for the fertile plains in northern India which are conducive to farming. The Indian climate varies from a tropical climate in the south to a more temperate climate in the north. Parts of India which lie in the Himalaya have a tundra climate. India gets most of its rains through the monsoons.
Things to Know about Geography of India
- India happens to be the seventh largest country in the world occupying an area of 32,87,590 sq km
- India is four times the size of Pakistan, 12 times the size of UK and 8 times the size of Japan.
- The mainland of India stretches from longitudes 68 degree 7′ and 97 degree 25′ east and latitudes 8 degree 4′ and 37 degree 6′ north.
- India shares its borders with; Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, Myanmar Bhutan, Nepal and Bangladesh.
- India lies entirely in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
- India witnesses Tropical monsoon type climatic conditions
- In case of plant diversity India holds the tenth position in the world and the fourth place in Asia
- India’s variety of fauna crosses almost 89,451 species.
- Ganga is the longest river in India
- Chilka is the largest lake in India
- The Telephone Country Code of India is +91
- India’s coastline includes Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep Islands and the mainland 7,516.6 km
- The first Special Economic Zone was established in Kandla in Gujarat in the year 1965
Things to Know about History of India
- India is the largest and oldest civilization in the world
- India holds the record of not invading any other country in the last 10000 years of her history.
- India is the largest democracy in the world.
- Varanasi is believed to be the oldest city in the world that is inhabited till today.
- The Number System was invented in India.
- The first university in the world was established in Takshashila, India in the year 700BC.
- Sanskrit is known as the mother of all European languages.
- The Vedas was written in 1400 BC
- The Upanishads, was written between 800-600 BC
- Buddhism was born in India in 500 BC
- The founder of Buddhism was Siddhartha Gautama
- Jainism was founded in India in 500 BC by Mahavira
- In the year 1526 the Mughal Empire was established by Babur in India
- The Taj Mahal was built in the year 1628 by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan
- The Indian National Congress was formed in the year 1885
- The Amritsar Massacre took place on 13 April 1919
- Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948
- In the year 1940 Muhammad Ali Jinnah proposed the demand for a separate country for Muslims, which would be called Pakistan
- Ayurveda which is the earliest school of medicine in the world was born in India 2500 years ago.
- India was a very rich country till the British invasion.
- Chess was invented in India.
- The four major religions of the world today Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism were all born in India
Some other striking Facts about India
- India happens to be the largest English speaking country in the world.
- India is home to the second largest pool of Engineers and Scientists in the World.
- The Bombay stock exchange is one of the biggest in the world. It includes more than 6,600 companies.
- The pharmaceutical industry in India is the second largest in the world, after China.
- India is the largest producer of milk in the world
- India is among the top five producers of tea, silk, spices, sugar, cotton, rubber, coffee and fish.
- The Indian railway system, happens to be the largest employer in the world, it provides employment to more than a million people
- The most number of post offices in the world are found in India
- India is the 11th largest economy in the world in terms of GDP
- 700 million people in India use mobile phones
- The Agriculture sector accounts for 25 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
- Almost 70 per cent of the total population of the country is dependent on agriculture.
- India is the largest producer of banana in the world.
- India happens to be the largest exporter, producer, processor and consumer of cashew nuts in the world.
- India is responsible for 10 per cent of the total fruit production in the world
- Coal is a major source of energy in India it caters to almost 67 per cent of the country’s commercial requirement.
- RBI is the only authority in India that can issue currency notes
- Orissa is one of the major producers of Graphite in India
- The country’s largest news agency is Press Trust of India (PTI)
- India is home to 184 ports out of which 12 are very important.